“The Churches and the Third Reich”

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The Protestant, liberal publisher Leopold Klotz published the two-volume anthology “Die Kirche und das dritte Reich. Fragen und Forderungen deutscher Theologen” (The Church and the Third Reich. Questions and Challenges for German Theologians) in the spring and summer of 1932.

The total of forty-three authors who responded to Klotz’s questions included, among others, Emil Fuchs, Hermann Mulert, Martin Rade, Walter Künneth, Hermann Strathmann, Wilhelm Schubring and Paul Tillich. They were supposed to answer whether and to what extent they believed the major new liberation movement sweeping “our nation” will be able to hold up to the Protestant faith. Thus, a theological rather than a political examination of National Socialism had been requested.

The volumes reflected a broad range of well-known Protestants’ views toward National Socialism. Twelve were supporters, twelve were undecided and nineteen were opponents. Above all, Paul Tillich, Emil Fuchs, Gotthilf Schenkel, Lilly Zarncke und Gertrud Herrmann criticized National Socialism sharply.

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  • © Ev. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kirchl. Zeitgeschichte München, KK 13.7350:1