In the broadest sense, motives for resistance could be rooted in individuals’ Christian socialization. For instance, the decision among ecclesiastical and theological officials to take a negative attitude might be owed to rivalry between theological elites. A generation of theologians gained influence among the German Christians, who had origins in another, usually simpler social milieu than conservative Lutherans and liberal theologians, who tended to come from a sheltered middle class milieu.

The individuals concerned rarely make mention of either the type of Christian socialization or competition among elites when they name their reasons; they perhaps cite only “Christian convictions” as a reason for resistance. One has to draw on an underlying complex of issues in order to learn the motives for resistance.

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